As already indicated, words in Hebrew are vocalized by placing vowel symbols below or above the letters. For example, you know that YLD is yeled and not yalad by looking at the vowel points placed below the letters.

2. The t-like and dash-like symbols are both equivalent to "a" like in art. So it's yalad - "gave birth". 1. These three points are equivalent to "e" like in shell. So it's yeled - "boy".